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*** Summary of Stanford Study on Low Dose Naltrexone (LDN) ***

Last updated October 5, 2014 (additional studies added)


Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3962576/

The use of low-dose naltrexone (LDN)
as a novel anti-inflammatory treatment for chronic pain

Jarred Younger, Luke Parkitny, and David McLain
Stanford University, Stanford, CA USA
Department of Anesthesia, Pain and Perioperative Medicine,
Stanford University,
1070 Arastradero Road, Suite 200
Palo Alto, CA 94304 USA

McLain Medical Associates,
Birmingham, AL USA

Department of Anesthesia
Pain and Perioperative Medicine
Stanford University
1070 Arastradero Road
Room 286
Palo Alto, CA 94304 USA

Jarred Younger - Corresponding author
Phone: +1-650-7211988
Fax: +1-650-7259642,
Email: ude.drofnats@regnuoyj.
Author information ? Article notes ? Copyright and License information ?
Received January 16, 2014; Revised January 22, 2014; Accepted January 26, 2014.
Copyright © The Author(s) 2014

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

Low-dose naltrexone (LDN) has been demonstrated to reduce symptom severity in conditions such as fibromyalgia, Crohn´s disease, multiple sclerosis, and complex regional pain syndrome. We review the evidence that LDN may operate as a novel anti-inflammatory agent in the central nervous system, via action on microglial cells. These effects may be unique to low dosages of naltrexone and appear to be entirely independent from naltrexone´s better-known activity on opioid receptors. As a daily oral therapy, LDN is inexpensive and well-tolerated. Despite initial promise of efficacy, the use of LDN for chronic disorders is still highly experimental. Published trials have low sample sizes, and few replications have been performed. We cover the typical usage of LDN in clinical trials, caveats to using the medication, and recommendations for future research and clinical work. LDN may represent one of the first glial cell modulators to be used for the management of chronic pain disorders.
In this review, we will discuss the concept of using low-dose naltrexone (LDN) as a novel anti-inflammatory treatment for chronic pain conditions that are suspected to be associated with inflammatory processes. Within a specific dosage window, opioid antagonists such as naltrexone can exert a “paradoxical” analgesic effect

[1]. We will further present the rationale for considering LDN as a primary example of a relatively new class of therapeutic agents called glial cell modulators. This review is intended for clinicians who are seeking additional information about the background, theory, 7mechanism of action, and research use of LDN. We will be focusing this discussion on LDN as a monotherapy for chronic pain. The closely related concept of ultralow-dose naltrexone involves the use of microgram, nanogram, and picogram dosages of naltrexone co-administered with opioid analgesics

[2]. The approach is used to both increase the efficacy of opioid analgesia therapy and reduce some adverse side effects. Ultralow-dose naltrexone has been covered extensively in previous reviews [3] and will not be discussed here.
...12 pages of study data deleted here ...

Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3962576/


The totality of the basic and clinical research to date suggests that LDN is a promising treatment approach for chronic pain conditions thought to involve inflammatory processes. The clinical data supporting its use are very preliminary, and more research is needed before the treatment approach can be widely recommended. Critical parameters such as dosing still need to be refined. LDN may emerge as the first of many glial cell modulators that could be used to treat chronic conditions, with more specifically targeted medications developed in the future. As conventional anti-inflammatories have poor blood brain-barrier permeability, we expect centrally active immune modulators to be an area of interest in the future.

Financial support was provided by:
The American Fibromyalgia Syndrome Association
The Binns Family Foundation.

Conflict of interest --- The authors declare none.

****************** Additional studies ******************
NIH(?) study looking at LDN.
"The use of low-dose naltrexone (LDN) as a novel anti-inflammatory treatment for chronic pain"

****************** Additional study ******************

Summary::: The use of low-dose naltrexone (LDN) for the treatment and prophylaxis of various bodily disorders is discussed. Accumulating evidence suggests that LDN can promote health supporting immune modulation which may reduce various oncogenic and inflammatory autoimmune processes. ...

Intermediate levels of LDN (at $0.25 mg/kg given every other day) were initially found to have some benefits in the treatment of a subset of autistic children. ...

Although the data is only now emerging for beneficial endoge- nous brain and body opioid rebound effects from LDN supplementation, ... may provide prophylaxis for a variety of disorders, from oncogenesis to neurological disorders, where a compromised immune system hastens bodily decline.

****************** Additional study ******************
Revisiting the ALA/N (alpha-lipoic acid/low-dose naltrexone) protocol for people with metastatic and nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer: a report of 3 new cases.